I had this idea for a while to learn a few modern languages by porting my iterative JSON parser written in Python as a test case. It only makes sense because, unlike most tutorials, it provides you with a real real-world problem and in the end you might also get a useful piece of code.

I started with Rust, and I already have plans to do the same with Go and Clojure afterwards. I won't be giving you any introduction to Rust though, as there's a lot of those around the Web. I'll try to share what I didn't find in those.



After a few days of fumbling around, feeling incredibly dense and switching from condemning the language to praising it every 15 minutes I've got a working JSON lexer. It's still in the playground mode: short, clumsy and not structured in any meaningful way. Following are some notes on the language.


The amount of control you have over things is staggering. Which is another way of saying that the language is rather complicated. From the get-go you worry about the difference between strings and string slices (pointers into strings), values on the heap ("boxed") vs. values on the stack and dynamic vs. static dispatch for calling methods of traits. Feels very opposite to what I'm used to in Python, but on the other hand I did try to come out of my comfort zone :-)

Here's a little taste of that. The Lexer owns a fixed buffer of bytes within which it searches for lexemes and returns them one by one as steps of an iteration. So my first idea was to define an iterator of pointers ("slices" in Rust parlance) into that buffer to avoid copying each lexeme into its own separate object:

impl Iterator for Lexer {
    type Item = &[u8];  // a "pointer" to an array of unsigned bytes
    // ...

This turns out to be impossible, because Rust wants to know the lifetime of pointers but in this case it simply can't tell how a yielded pointer is related to the lifetime of the Lexer's internal buffer. It doesn't know who and how has created that Lexer object, it is not guaranteed to be the same block of code that now iterates over it. Since you can't have a pointer to something in limbo, you have to construct a dynamic, ownable vector of bytes and return it from an iteration step, so a consumer would hold onto it independent of the source buffer:

impl Iterator for Lexer {
    type Item = Vec<u8>; // a growable vector of bytes

    fn next(&mut self) -> Option<Vec<u8>> { // don't mind the Option<> part
        let mut result = vec![];
        // .... 
        result.extend(self.buf[start..self.pos].iter().cloned()); // more on that later…

By the way, this is the kind of learning experience that only comes with a real real-world task. Tutorials tend to avoid this kind of messiness.

About that .iter().clone() thing… Turns out there are quite a few subtly different ways of pushing an array of bytes into a vector:

Compare this to something like vector.extend(iterable) in Python where iterable can be either an iterator or something that can become an iterator — the language doesn't care. It's an excellent example of what people mean talking about "better productivity of dynamic languages". (Which comes at the price of performance, of course — I'm not trying to pretend that there's one single true way here.)


Rust solves the Expression problem with "traits". Traits are almost the same thing as interfaces in Java except that objects themselves don't claim to adhere to interfaces. Instead, you first define your data structures and then implement traits for them separately (Clojurists would recognize their Protocols here). This separation allows you to bind your traits to external objects and vice-versa. It also means that methods tend to group into rather fine-grained bundles. It does feel kind of right but might complicate maintenance and is harder to document.

What's really refreshing though and what feels definitely right is that there's no classical object inheritance. Begone rigid class hierarchies!

Error handling

Rust uses the idea of return values as tagged unions representing both a successful result and an error and leaves it to the caller to analyze it. Thankfully, Rust enforces error checking: you simply cannot access a successful value implicitly without indicating how you want to deal with an error.

You either have to manually match all possible variants of a result (the compiler won't let you omit the Error part):

let result = str::from_utf8(bytes);
match result {
    Error(e) => // deal with a decoding error `e`
    Ok(s) => // deal with a string `s`

Or you can use various helpers:

// Turn Ok/Error thing into a subtly different form <YourType>/None, losing the error
let s = str::from_utf8(bytes).ok();

// Insist further on having a non-empty value defaulting to a complete program stop
// (panic!) if it's not available
let s = str::from_utf8(bytes).ok().unwrap();

// Obtain a final value of your type doing an early return from the function 
// in case of an error
let s = try!(str::from_utf8(bytes));

To be honest, I'm not a fan of this approach and am personally very much content with traditional exceptions. But that calls for a whole another blog post though (already drafted). For now I tend to use panic!() for every error and not bother but I will have to replace them all eventually with something more in line with the Rust philosophy.

Speaking of exceptions, tracebacks (or "stack traces") in Rust are displayed backwards, as in most languages. The problem is aggravated by the Rust compiler having very verbose error messages and trying to display as many of them as possible in one go. I understand how it makes sense if what you're compiling is a huge browser engine but I'm really tired of scrolling my terminal window back and forth. I miss Python :-(


Modularity in Rust isn't bound to the file system and uses somewhat misleading terminology:

What's important is that Rust comes bundled with cargo — an official tool that does building, packaging and installation. And there's an official packages repository. I strongly believe a language cannot be considered modern without one (sorry, C++!)

Comments: 3 (noteworthy: 1)

  1. kriomant

    In fact, rust has lifetime parameters for structs, so it must possible to use slice in iterator.

  2. Maxime A. DIDIER

    Noteworthy comment

    As of rust 1.1, vector.extend actually accepts any value that implements IntoIterator. This includes slices, vectors, iterators, optionals, even your own types if Iterator is implemented for those. The list of built-in IntoIterator implentations can be found here.

  3. Ivan Sagalaev

    Maxime, thanks! That's useful indeed!

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